Sunday, July 24, 2011

Education in Independent India

Education in Independent India:
The character and objective of education in India underwent a drastic change since independence. The aim of the national education was to make our young generation patriotic and also to equip them with tools that may help them to build up a nation with correct perspective. In independent India two education commissions appointed by Nehru government in 1948 and 1952 contributed to the evolution of such an education.
Radhakrishnan Commission[1948-49]: In November 1948 the government appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Dr.Radhakrishnan to report on university education in the country and suggest improvements. The important recommendations were [1] twelve years of pre-university education, [2] working days at the university should not be less than 180 in the year exclusive of examination days., [3] higher education to have three objectives;general education,liberal education and occupational education. More attention should be paid to subjects such as agriculture, commerce, education, engineering, technology, law and medicine, [4] a university degree should not be considered essential for administrative services, [5] as far as possible examinations should be held subject wise at different stages, [6] standard of examinations should be raised and made uniform in all the universities., and [7] a university grants commission should be set up to look after university education in the country.
University Grants Commission Act [UGC Act]: In Persuance of the recommendation f the Radhakrishnan Commission, the University Grants Commission was constituted in 1953. The Commission was given an autonomous statutory status. By an Act of parliament in 1956 most of the matters connected with the university education have been committed to the care of this body. The central government annually places at the disposal of UGC adequate funds. Grants are given to different universities from these funds.
Mudaliar Commission[1952-1953]: Reorganisation of secondary education is a pre-condition for proper development of university education. So a secondary education commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Mudaliar Commission submitted its report in 1953. the Commission pointed out that India is wedded to democracy and socialism. So, Commission remarks that promotion of national consciousness and secular outlook must be the prime aims of education.
The important recommendations of the Commission are [1] a curriculam for secondary school that would, “crate in the student clarity of thought and speech, scientific temper, ability to absorb new ideas, sense of man’s dignity and nobility and respect for manual labour, [2] after the completion of higher secondary course a one year pre-university course, [3] study of two languages; one must be either mother tongue or the local language, [4] at secondary level medium of instruction should be mother tongue or the local language, [5] there shall be no more than 40 students in a class, [6] there shall be a public examination at the end of the secondary education, [7] there should be a library in every school, [8] some sort of regulation must be there on schools under private management, [9] formation and functioning of a text book committee and a secondary education board and [10] a uniform procedure must be followed for appointing teachers in schools. For one reason or other, Mudaliar Commission’s recommendations could not be fully implemented.
Kothari Commission [1964-1966]: The Kothari Commission was appointed in July 1964. The Commission was formed to advise the government on the national pattern of eduction and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects. The Commission recognized that education and research are crucial to the entire development and progress of a country. Impotant recommendations of the commission are [1] introduction of work experience and social service as integral pats of general education at all levels of education, [2] stress on moral education and introduction of a sense of responsibility. Schools should recognize their responsibility in facilitating the transition of youth from the world of school to the world of work and life, [3] vocationalisation of secondary education, [4] special emphasis on the training and quality of teachers for schools and [5] education for agriculture and research in agriculture and allied subjects should be given a high priority in the scheme of educational reconstruction.
New Education Policy: The Rajiv Gandhi government introduced drastic changes in the field of education.The important achievements are the Operation Blackboard , the establishment of Navodaya schools and stress given to computer education. In 1986, the government introduced the New Education Policy. The aim of the new education policy is to transfer a static society into one vibrant with a commitment to development and change. The long term programme and strategy consists of [1]increase in literary rate from the present 36% of the population to 56% by 2000AD, [2] universalisation of elementary education, [3]vocationalisation of higher secondary education, [4]improvement of higher education and to train motivated man power to new challenges inherent in modernization and globalisation of economy, and [5]education should have special relevance and the curricula should be so devised to inculcate in the students noble principles and ideals enshrined in our constitution.

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